If you have any doubts or confusion regarding the same, please feel free to leave your queries in the comment section below. When atoms of different elements come together to form a compound, they do so by developing a bond between them. It has a Trigonal Planar geometry which cancels out the dipole moments of the three BF bonds making the resultant Dipole Moment of the compound equal to 0 (Zero). Required fields are marked *. The polarity of a molecule is very much dependent on its structure and geometry. This results in an overall structure that is generally nonpolar in character. Boron Trifluoride is toxic when present in its gaseous state but dissolves easily in cold water due to its high solubility and gives Hydrofluoric Acid which is highly corrosive in its nature. So, is BF3 polar or non-polar? Does Jupiter Have a Solid Surface? eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'techiescientist_com-leader-1','ezslot_5',108,'0','0']));Now, with the concepts clear in our minds we can clearly understand how the BF3 molecule is non-polar despite the presence of F (Fluorine), a highly electronegative element. Answer: BF3 is nonpolar because all of the fluorine atoms are arranged in a trigonal planar fashion around the molecule, thereby cancelling out each other's pull for electrons. The higher the electronegativity of an atom, the more tendency it has to attract the shared electron pairs of a bond towards itself. The difference between the electronegativity values of B and F is equal to 1.94 (3.98 – 2.04 = 1.94) which is greater than 0.5. What is polar and non-polar? The most important use of BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) happens to be in organic synthesis as a catalyst for many reactions that are useful in industrial productions. 1 D = 3.33564 × 10-30 C.m, where C is Coulomb and m stands for a meter. Mathematically, the dipole moment of a bond can be calculated by using the formula given below: Dipole Moment (µ) = Charge (Q) * distance of separation (r). To determine if a bond is polar or not we must find out the difference between the electronegativity values of the two atoms sharing a bond. It is used as adhesives and sealant chemicals, adsorbents and absorbents, fuels and fuel additives, oxidizing/reducing agents, binding agent for industrial manufacturing, plastics industry, drug production, etc. If these lone pairs of electrons remain unbalanced i.e. Electronegativity is denoted by symbol χ (Greek letter Chi). The BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) molecule has 1 atom of B (Boron, atomic no: 5) and 3 atoms of F (Fluorine, atomic no: 9). BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) has many uses in various industries. The molecules which are highly symmetrical are Non-Polar (like BF3). However, we must keep in mind that bond polarity is different from overall molecule polarity. BF3 for example will try to form an octet on the central atom by converting to, https://i1.wp.com/chemistry.com.pk/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/electronegativity-chart.jpg?ssl=1. Vapors of BF3 are heavier than air and the prolonged exposure of BF3 containers to heat or fire may have a rupturing or rocketing effect. BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) is Non-Polar because of its highly symmetric shape. (1999-2012)). VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) Theory helps to identify the geometrical shape of the molecule which gives us the bond angle. The Lewis structure of the molecule gives us an overview of all the lone pairs of electrons that are present in the molecule. A molecule may have all its bonds polar and yet it might be non-polar (like BF3), it happens due to the canceling of dipole moments of all the bonds making the resultant dipole moment equal to 0 (Zero). Thus, making the molecule BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) as Non-Polar. To find out whether a given molecule is polar or non-polar, we must also understand the factors which are responsible for the polarity of a molecule. Is 03 a polar molecule? Chemists represent the dipole moment with the slight variation in arrow symbol with the arrowhead pointing towards the negative center, as depicted: Since dipole moment is a vector quantity i.e. These factors are explained below in detail. unsymmetrical then the molecule acquires a polarity (like in NH3 where the Nitrogen atom has the lone pair). Answer = BF3 ( Boron trifluoride ) is Nonpolar. The bond polarity doesn’t always result in overall molecular polarity. it has both magnitude and direction, therefore, it can also be 0 (Zero) when the two opposite bond dipoles cancel each other due to the symmetrical geometry of the molecule, like in BF3. Apart from this, it is useful in manufacturing oils, Crude oil, crude petroleum, refined oil products, fuel oils, drilling oils, etc. Answer: BF3 is nonpolar because all of the fluorine atoms are arranged in a trigonal planar fashion around the molecule, thereby cancelling out each other's pull for electrons. No. Thus, each B-F bond in BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) molecule is polar. The element with a higher electronegativity value attracts the shared electrons towards itself thus acquiring a partial negative charge (δ-) and the element with less electronegativity value acquires a partial positive charge (δ+). As a result, a separation of charge within the bond takes place and bond polarity develops. In this bond sharing of electrons take place but this sharing is always not equal between the elements. The paper manufacturing industry also uses BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) for the manufacturing of pulp. We will get back to you, as soon as possible. (Source: https://www.epa.gov/chemical-data-reporting). For a bond to be polar, the electronegativity difference between the two atoms should be greater than or equal to 0.5. Can You Stand on Jupiter? Its solubility in cold H2O is 106%. It can corrode metals including stainless steel. It has a Trigonal Planar geometry which cancels out the dipole moments of the three BF bonds making the resultant Dipole Moment of the compound equal to 0 (Zero). separation of charge occurs then a bond dipole moment is developed. However, bond polarity alone does not make a molecule polar.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'techiescientist_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_4',107,'0','0'])); When a bond acquires polarity i.e. Your email address will not be published. Now, we know that the Non-Polarity of BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) is due to its highly symmetrical Trigonal Planar geometry, as predicted by the VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) Theory, which other molecules, like H2O, doesn’t have. Some of them are mentioned below: By now, you must have clearly understood the concept behind the polarity and non-polarity of a molecule including the reasons which are specific to BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) to make it non-polar. Polar. BF3 is non polar as it has trigonal planer shape (sp 2 hybridisation) which is symmetrical in all respects. To answer our question, we will analyze various factors, responsible for polarity, with respect to BF3.
Students often get confused regarding the polarity or non-polarity of BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) due to the presence of three Fluorine atoms which have a very high electronegativity value when compared to the Boron atom. To know whether a compound is polar or non-polar, we must first have an idea about what do we mean by Polarity. The individual bonds are polar, but BF3 is trigonal planar so the overall molecule is not polar. According to the VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) Theory, the BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) molecule has a Trigonal planar geometry with each F-B-F bond angle equal to 120 degrees which again adds to the balance of the molecule making it highly symmetric, as shown: In BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) molecule there are three bonds of B-F, as shown clearly in Lewis diagram above.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'techiescientist_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_1',103,'0','0'])); The electronegativity of B (Boron) is 2.04 and of F (Fluorine) is 3.98 (maximum) according to the Pauling scale which means that F (Fluorine) will pull the shared electrons towards itself and will thus acquire a partial negative charge (δ-) and B (Boron) will have a partial positive charge (δ+). BF3 (Boron Trifluoride) is Non-Polar because of its highly symmetric shape. It can be defined as the capability or the force with which an atom of an element pulls the shared electrons of a bond towards itself making the sharing as unequal. Is A polar molecule an ion? It is also used as a lubricant for engines, brake fuels, oils, etc. According, to which Fluorine element has the highest electronegativity equal to 3.98. No a molecule is a molecule, polar or nonpolar. Let’s try to understand this in some detail. Even though it is colorless but forms dense white fumes in moist air due to the presence of H2O molecules, however, it is stable in a dry atmosphere. These are generally called, However, when these kinds of elements are handled in real life they are often unstable due to the incomplete octet. It means that the electrons are not shared equally by the two atoms (B and F) instead they are pulled towards F (Fluorine). https://www.epa.gov/chemical-data-reporting, H2O Lewis Structure, Molecular Geometry, and Hybridization, CO Lewis Structure, Geometrical Structure, and Hybridization, O2 Lewis Structure, Molecular Geometry, and Hybridization, Nitration and Sulfonation of aromatic compounds (Source: Brotherton RJ et al; Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 7th ed.
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