Hence, the surface of bioanodes should be pretreated prior to their applications in MFCs for better biofilm formation. At low S and Al contents in steel, CaS formation can take place only with high Ca addition and there exists a wide liquid region of Ca-aluminate inclusions. The thermodynamic constraints can be calculated in Fe–Al–O–Ca system or for “real” steels containing alloying elements and sulfur which is very essential as Ca is a strong sulfide forming element too. To do this, an aqueous solution of CaS is subjected to carbonation with CO2: Calcium sulfide is also used as a lubricant additive and as a flotation agent in mineral extraction. proposed a three-dimensional (3D) SS foam with appropriate porosity as the bioanode for MFCs.37 The 3D SS foam produced higher current than plain SS (four times) and carbon cloth (two times). Calcium sulfide is an organic molecular entity. The positive active material of manganese dioxide is available as natural, chemical, or electrolytic manganese dioxide. The material resulting from the union of the CaS and the activator is used for example in cathode ray tube screens that make up the old screens of computers or computers or old TV sets. Application of a partially oxidized carbon felt obtained by UV/O3 treatment as the bioanode greatly improved the performance of MFC as compared to untreated carbon felt through enhanced biofilm formation and ET.29 The partial oxidation of carbon felt created oxygen-containing functional groups at the bioanode surface that caused an increase in hydrophilicity, a favorable property for bacterial attachment.29 Activation of carbon felt through nitric acid treatment also showed better performance over commercial carbon felt in MFCs.30 The improved performance of MFC with nitric acid treated bioanode was possibly due to a considerable reduction in the anodic resistance and increase in surface roughness for bacterial attachment. The electrolysis solution is prepared by dissolving rhodochrosite in hot sulfuric acid and purified by blowing air with manganese dioxide powder at 80–90 °C to oxidize the contained Fe2+ to Fe3+ followed by the addition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) for removing the contaminants by precipitating heavy metal ions including Fe3+ as the hydroxides. Recently, sticky carbon paper electrodes coated with conductive polymers exhibited better bioanode performance than carbon felt electrodes by providing large pore size for the bacterial attachment.28 It is known that the virgin forms of carbon cloth and felt prevent thick biofilm formation at the bioanode due to their hydrophobicity and less porous structures. The history of EMD production is outlined in A. Agopsowicz and F. L. Tye’s paper. The lower conductivity of carbon materials, in particular, of the porous electrodes, leads to higher specific electrical resistivity. These steels, however, do not fulfill the strictest requirements as to mechanical properties and cleanliness. They are also used in current light-emitting diode, or LED, lamps. Calcium sulfide (CaS), a donor of hydrogen sulfide (H (2) S): a new antihypertensive drug? In the luminescent compounds of CaS this acts as a base and activators are added to the structure such as chlorides of certain elements such as cerium (Ce3+) and europium (Eu2+). CaS - CALCIUM SULFIDE. De Beer, M. et al. The polyaniline precursor-based electrospun carbon fiber mats possessed high porosity that allowed efficient mass transfer within the electrode material but had a low mechanical strength.39. Calcium sulfide definition, a yellow to light-gray, slightly water-soluble powder, CaS, having the odor of rotten eggs when moist: used chiefly in the preparation of luminous paint, hydrogen sulfide, and as a depilatory in cosmetics.

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